Environ- mental Quality
Life Cycle Analysis
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) – also known as life cycle analysis, ecological footprint or carbon footprint assessment – is the systematic analysis of the environmental impact of products and services during the entire lifetime, from their production, to their use and disposal. LCA includes both withdrawals from the environment, for example water consumption, and emissions released into the environment, especially emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Using LCA, we study the environmental impact of upstream and downstream processes, including a consideration of the necessary energy that is involved.