Biocompatibility testing of composite biomaterial designed for a new petal valve construction for pulsatile ventricular assist device

Publication from Materials
Laser- und Plasma-Technologien

Roman Major, Maciej Gawlikowski, Hanna Plutecka, Marcin Surmiak, Marcin Kot, Marcin Dyner, Juergen M. Lackner , Boguslaw Major

Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine volume 32, Article number: 118 (2021), 8/2021


This paper presents the results of biocompatibility testing performed on several biomaterial variants for manufacturing a newly designed petal valve intended for use in a pulsatile ventricular assist device or blood pump. Both physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were used to coat titanium-based substrates with hydrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:H) or amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H and a-C:H, N). Experiments were carried out using whole human blood under arterial shear stress conditions in a cone-plate analyzer (ap. 1800 1/s). In most cases, tested coatings showed good or very good haemocompatibility. Type a-C:H, N coating proved to be superior in terms of activation, risk of aggregation, and the effects of generating microparticles of apoptotic origin, and also demonstrated excellent mechanical properties. Therefore, a-C:H, N coatings were selected for further in vivo studies. In vivo animal studies were carried out according to the ISO 10993 standard. Intradermal reactivity was assessed in three rabbits and sub-acute toxicity and local effects after implantation were examined in 12 rabbits. Based on postmortem examination, no organ failure or wound tissue damage occurred during the required period of observation. In summary, our investigations demonstrated high biocompatibility of the biomaterials in relation to thrombogenicity, toxicity, and wound healing. Prototypes of the petal valves were manufactured and mounted on the pulsatile ventricular assist device. Hydrodynamic features and impact on red blood cells (hemolysis) as well as coagulation (systemic thrombogenicity) were assessed in whole blood.