New challenges for universities in the knowledge triangle

Publication from Policies
Technologie, Innovation und Politikberatung

M. Unger , G. Ajmone Marsan, D. Meissner, W. Polt, M. Cervantes

The Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, J Technol Transf. DOI 10.1007/s10961-018-9699-8, 2018


This paper discusses the role of higher education institutions within the framework of the knowledge triangle between academic education, scientific research and innovation, as it has gained importance in recent years as a framework for innovation policies especially in the OECD and Europe. First, complementary concepts of universities’ outreach activities and extended role model such as ‘third mission’, ‘triple helix’, ‘entrepreneurial or civic university’ models and ‘smart specialization’ are reflected against their fit with the concept of the knowledge triangle, also with respect to new requirements for university governance. Second, a new understanding of spillovers between public sectors research and the business sector according to knowledge triangle is presented.