Differential In Vitro Effects of SGLT2 Inhibitors on Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation, Glucose Uptake and Cell Metabolism
Publikation aus Health
Elmar Zügner, Hsiu-Chiung Yang, Petra Kotzbeck, Beate Boulgaropoulos, Harald Sourij, Sepideh Hagvall, Charles S. Elmore, Russell Esterline, Sven Moosmang, Jan Oscarsson, Thomas R. Pieber, Xiao-Rong Peng, Christoph Magnes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. , 7/2022
(1) The cardio-reno-metabolic benefits of the SGLT2 inhibitors canagliflozin (cana), dapagliflozin (dapa), ertugliflozin (ertu), and empagliflozin (empa) have been demonstrated, but it remains unclear whether they exert different off-target effects influencing clinical profiles. (2) We aimed to investigate the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on mitochondrial function, cellular glucose-uptake (GU), and metabolic pathways in human-umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). (3) At 100 µM (supra-pharmacological concentration), cana decreased ECAR by 45% and inhibited GU (IC5o: 14 µM). At 100 µM and 10 µM (pharmacological concentration), cana increased the ADP/ATP ratio, whereas dapa and ertu (3, 10 µM, about 10× the pharmacological concentration) showed no effect. Cana (100 µM) decreased the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) by 60%, while dapa decreased it by 7%, and ertu and empa (all 100 µM) had no significant effect. Cana (100 µM) inhibited GLUT1, but did not significantly affect GLUTs’ expression levels. Cana (100 µM) treatment reduced glycolysis, elevated the amino acids supplying the tricarboxylic-acid cycle, and significantly increased purine/pyrimidine-pathway metabolites, in contrast to dapa (3 µM) and ertu (10 µM). (4) The results confirmed cana´s inhibition of mitochondrial activity and GU at supra-pharmacological and pharmacological concentrations, whereas the dapa, ertu, and empa did not show effects even at supra-pharmacological concentrations. At supra-pharmacological concentrations, cana (but not dapa or ertu) affected multiple cellular pathways and inhibited GLUT1.
Keywords: SGLT2 inhibitor; dapagliflozin; empagliflozin; canagliflozin; ertugliflozin; metabolomics; mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation; glucose uptake; cellular energy level; cell metabolism