Design, Manufacturing Technology and In-Vitro Evaluation of Original, Polyurethane, Petal Valves for Application in Pulsating Ventricular Assist Devices
Publication from Materials
Laser- und Plasma-Technologien
R. Major, M. Gawlikowski, M. Sanak, J. M. Lackner, A, Kapis
Polymers 12(12), 2986; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12122986, 12/2020
Minimizing of the life-threatening thrombo-emboli formation in pulsatile heart assist devices by a new biomimetic heart valve design is presently one of the most important problems in medicine. As part of this work, an original valve structure was proposed intended for pneumatic, extracorporeal ventricular assist devices. The valve design allows for direct integration with other parts of the pulsating blood pump. Strengthening in the form of the titanium or steel frame has been introduced into the polyurethane lagging, which allows for maintaining material continuity and eliminating the risk of blood clotting. The prototype of the valve was made by the injection molding method assisted by numerical simulation of this process. The prototype was introduced into a modified pulsating, extracorporeal heart assist pump ReligaHeart EXT (developed for tilting disc valves) and examined in-vitro using the “artificial patient” model in order to determine hydrodynamic properties of the valve in the environment similar to physiological conditions. Fundamental blood tests, like hemolysis and thrombogenicity have been carried out. Very low backflow through the closed valve was observed despite their slight distortion due to pressure. On the basis of immunofluorescence tests, only slight activation of platelets was found on the inlet valve and slight increased risk of clotting of the outlet valve commissures as a result of poor valve leaflets assembling in the prototype device. No blood hemolysis was observed. Few of the clots formed only in places where the valve surfaces were not smooth enough.
Keywords: petal valve; ventricular assist device; blood–material interaction