Direct Analysis of Oxidizing Agents in Aqueous Solution with Attenuated Total Reflectance Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Diamond-like Carbon Protected Waveguides
Publication from Materials
Anal. Chem. 76 (2), pp. 384-391, 2004
A novel approach for the direct detection of oxidizing agents in aqueous solution is presented using diamond-like carbon (DLC) protected waveguides in combination with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mid-infrared spectroscopy. Pulsed laser deposition was applied to produce high-quality DLC thin films on ZnSe ATR crystals with thicknesses of a few 100 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to investigate the surface properties of the DLC films including the sp3/sp2 hybridization ratio of the carbon bonds. Beside excellent adhesion of the DLC coatings to ZnSe crystals, these films show high chemical stability against strongly oxidizing agents. IR microscopy was utilized to compare differences in the chemical surface modification of bare and protected ATR waveguides when exposed to hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and peroxydisulfuric acid. The feasibility of DLC protected waveguides for real-time concentration monitoring of these oxidizing agents was demonstrated by measuring calibration sets in a concentration range of 0.2−10%. Additionally, principal component regression has been applied to analyze multicomponent mixtures of hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, and peracetic acid in aqueous solution. Due to high chemical stability and accurate monitoring capabilities, DLC protected waveguides represent a novel approach for directly detecting oxidizing agents in aqueous solution with promising potential for industrial process analysis.